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Probiotics during pregnancy

Should you take probiotics during pregnancy?

Probiotics are living organisms that may offer health benefits. This article explores if you should take probiotics during pregnancy and if it's safe.

Evidence-based
This article is based on scientific evidence, written by experts, and fact-checked by experts.
We look at both sides of the argument and strive to be objective, unbiased, and honest.
Last updated on March 2, 2023, and last reviewed by an expert on February 19, 2023.

Pregnancy can be an exciting time full of new experiences and learnings, especially regarding diet and supplements.

However, know you’re not alone if you’re pregnant and feel overwhelmed by the information available.

You’ve likely discovered that conflicting evidence abounds on health and wellness websites. Plus, many people — friends, family, co-workers, or even strangers — might feel warranted to give you their opinion on what’s safe and what’s not when you’re pregnant.

It’s understandable if this makes you wary about adding new foods and supplements to your diet, including probiotics.

This article breaks down the latest research on the safety of probiotics during pregnancy, enabling you to decide when to choose pregnancy supplements.

Are they safe to use during pregnancy?

Probiotics are living organisms in certain foods and drinks like yogurt, kefir, tempeh, and kombucha. You can also take them in supplement form.

Taking certain amounts may offer benefits like improved digestive health and reduced risk of heart disease.

Research has found most strains of probiotics, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, to be safe to take long term.

However, some researchers are exploring if the overuse of probiotic supplements could lead to the transfer of genes resistant to infectious pathogens, antibiotic resistance, and other negative health consequences.

Studies have found that taking probiotic supplements during pregnancy is safe and not associated with adverse outcomes.

Firstly, a large 2018 review of 49 publications found that taking probiotic supplements during pregnancy wasn’t associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or other adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers or babies.

Similarly, many other studies show that probiotic use is well tolerated if pregnant or breastfeeding.

A 2020 review evaluating probiotics’ safety in pregnancy and newborns detected adverse effects in 3 of the 21 included studies. All three reported adverse effects from probiotic use in infants, not during pregnancy.

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Two of these cases involved bacterial infection in the bloodstream of low birth-weight infants. In contrast, the last case involved probiotics in a low birth-weight infant after a surgical procedure.

Ultimately, the review concluded that probiotics are safe for pregnant women and full-term newborns but cautioned that more research is needed — especially in the most vulnerable populations like low birth weight infants.

If you’re pregnant and considering taking probiotics, we recommend running this by your healthcare professional first to make sure they’re the right choice for you and your baby.

Summary: Probiotic supplements appear safe if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, although researchers agree that larger, high-quality studies are needed to confirm this.

Benefits of taking probiotics during pregnancy

Perhaps you found this article because you’ve heard that taking probiotics during pregnancy is linked to health benefits.

This is supported by research. It’s believed that these supplements may improve certain aspects of maternal health, reduce the risk of pregnancy complications, and benefit newborns.

Probiotics during pregnancy may benefit gut health

Keeping your gut bacteria healthy is always important, especially when pregnant. Some evidence suggests that taking probiotics during pregnancy may be one way to improve gut bacteria composition and digestive health.

Suggested read: Probiotics: A simple beginner’s guide

One 2020 study in 49 pregnant women with obesity found that those who took a multi-strain probiotic supplement from an average of 17 weeks pregnant until delivery experienced increased gut bacteria diversity compared with those who took a placebo.

Specifically, the probiotic group had more beneficial bacteria lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and S. salivarius.

High bacterial diversity is a sign of a healthy gut, while low bacterial diversity has been linked to negative health outcomes like metabolic disorders. That said, more research in this area is needed.

Probiotics during pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm delivery and other pregnancy complications

Promisingly, taking probiotic supplements may help protect against preterm delivery and other pregnancy complications.

A 2020 review that included 18 randomized control trials found that the length of pregnancy was significantly longer in those taking probiotic supplements compared with those receiving placebo treatments.

The review also found that those who took probiotics had a significantly reduced risk of death and necrotizing fasciitis, a rare but life-threatening infection that can occur during pregnancy.

Probiotics during pregnancy may reduce the risk of eczema in infants

If you’re pregnant, taking probiotics may help reduce the risk of eczema — a condition characterized by red and itchy skin — in you and your baby.

For example, a 2020 review associated probiotic supplements with a significantly reduced risk of eczema during pregnancy.

Plus, a 2019 review of 28 studies associated the use of probiotics during and after pregnancy with a significantly reduced risk of eczema in infants and children.

In line with this, the World Allergy Organization recommends probiotic use in those who are pregnant and infants with a family history of allergic disease.

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Combined, this suggests that probiotic supplements may help prevent eczema in pregnant and babies. The available evidence is considered low quality, and more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Probiotics during pregnancy may reduce depression and anxiety

Perhaps you’re researching probiotic supplements because you’ve heard they can reduce the risk of or treat symptoms of depression and anxiety during and after pregnancy.

Unfortunately, even though it’s speculated that some strains of probiotics may have these effects, not all studies agree.

In a 2017 study in 380 women, taking a probiotic called Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) from weeks 14–16 of pregnancy until six months after birth led to significantly lower depression and anxiety scores, compared with a placebo.

Yet, the supplement manufacturer funded the study, which may have influenced the results.

Interestingly, a 2021 study in 40 women who were pregnant found that taking a multi-species probiotic supplement from 26–30 weeks of pregnancy until delivery had no effects on depression or anxiety symptoms.

A 2020 study also showed that probiotic treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 did not affect mental health outcomes in pregnant women.

In conclusion, there’s limited evidence that probiotics may reduce depression and anxiety during or after pregnancy.

Experiencing depression or anxiety during or after pregnancy is not uncommon, and you don’t have to get through this tough time alone. Talk with a trusted healthcare professional for help and to get the right care as soon as possible.

Probiotics during pregnancy may improve maternal metabolic health

If you’re pregnant, staying healthy is essential for reducing the risk of complications and developing certain health conditions after delivery.

Thankfully, probiotic supplements may help reduce blood sugar and insulin levels in pregnancy, improving health and lowering the risk of complications.

A 2018 review of 12 randomized controlled trials found that using probiotics during pregnancy reduced blood sugar and insulin levels.

In a 2017 review of 4 randomized controlled trials in 288 women with gestational diabetes — characterized by elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy — probiotics significantly reduced insulin resistance. However, they didn’t reduce blood sugar levels.

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The researchers suggested this could help those with gestational diabetes reduce the need for blood sugar-reducing medication later in pregnancy.

Many other studies have also shown how probiotic supplements may benefit insulin and blood sugar levels during pregnancy.

Additionally, a 2017 study suggested that treatment with HN001 during pregnancy may reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes, especially in women over 35 years and those who previously had the condition.

These findings are promising, but remember that research is ongoing.

It’s understandable if you’re interested in taking probiotic supplements to help reduce blood sugar or insulin levels. Still, talking with your healthcare professional first is important to check if that’s the best approach.

Summary: Taking probiotic supplements during pregnancy has several benefits, including reduced pregnancy complication risk and lowered blood sugar and insulin levels.

Should you take probiotics while pregnant?

So, now that you know that probiotics are generally safe to take during pregnancy and may offer some health benefits, you’re probably wondering whether or not you should take them. The answer is: It depends.

For some, the supplements may be beneficial during pregnancy.

For example, if you’ve been taking probiotics before pregnancy to improve symptoms of gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or Crohn’s disease, it’s likely suitable to continue taking them.

Additionally, these supplements may be helpful if you’re experiencing high blood sugar and insulin resistance or have a family history of allergic diseases.

Yet, even though some studies suggest that probiotics may reduce certain pregnancy complications, the evidence isn’t strong enough to recommend them to all who are pregnant.

Probiotics during pregnancy are not necessary for most people

Even though some people may benefit from taking these supplements during pregnancy, they aren’t necessary for most.

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Other supplements — including high-quality prenatal supplements and omega-3 fatty acid supplements — are more important to support maternal and fetal health.

But what remains the most important is enjoying a nutrient-dense, well-rounded diet and a healthy lifestyle.

For example, make sure to eat plenty of protein-rich foods like eggs, chicken, fish, lentils, vegetables and fruits, and healthy sources of fats like full-fat dairy, avocado, nuts, and seeds to provide your body with the nutrients it needs.

Additionally, even though most people don’t need a probiotic supplement during pregnancy, you’ll likely still benefit from eating foods naturally rich in probiotics such as kimchi, kefir, miso, and sauerkraut.

In addition, adding foods rich in prebiotics — fibers that help feed the good bacteria in your gut — like artichokes, garlic, onions, and asparagus to your diet can promote the overall health of your digestive system. Being rich in fiber, these foods can also help prevent constipation.

Suppose you’re pregnant or are trying to get pregnant and have questions about which supplements to take. In that case, we recommend speaking with an experienced healthcare professional like your OB-GYN or a registered dietitian specializing in nutrition during pregnancy.

They can provide customized recommendations and help you learn which supplements match your diet, lifestyle, and overall health. They can advise which strains may be most effective if they recommend a probiotic supplement.

On a final note, when purchasing supplements, including probiotics, make sure to choose products from reputable brands to ensure safety. Third-party organizations including USP, NSF International, or Underwriters Laboratory verify many brands.

Summary: Probiotics may provide some benefits during pregnancy, but they’re not always necessary. Oftentimes, a well-rounded diet and healthy lifestyle will do the trick, but make sure to raise any concerns you have with your healthcare professional.

Summary

Probiotics are popular supplements that are safe to take if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding.

Taking them during pregnancy has been linked to benefits like fewer pregnancy complications, reduced risk of eczema in babies, and improved markers of metabolic health in expectant mothers.

Despite this, probiotics are not necessary or appropriate for all pregnant women. As such, we recommend asking your healthcare professional for advice if you want to try probiotic supplements during pregnancy.

If you’d like to include more probiotics in your diet without taking supplements, read the following article to learn more about which foods are naturally high in them:

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